Kidney Diseases In Childhood

The kidneys play a crucial role in the human body: functioning as the body’s filtering system, they help control water levels and remove wastes through urine. They also help regulate blood pressure, red blood cell production, and also the degree of minerals and calcium. In this article on, we will tell you all about kidney diseases in childhood. Let’s start!

But occasionally the kidneys do not grow properly and, consequently, do not function as they need to. Often these issues are hereditary and not because of anything that a parent did or did not do.

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A lot of these issues can be diagnosed before a baby is born through regular prenatal testing and treated with surgery or medication while the child is still young. Other problems might appear afterward, with symptoms like urinary tract infections (UTIs), expansion issues, or higher blood pressure (hypertension).

In some instances, the issues can be severe and require surgical therapy.

How The Kidney’s Work

How The Kidney's Work Images

The kidneys are similar to the human body’s garbage collection and disposal system. During microscopic units called nephrons, the kidneys remove waste products and excess water in the food an individual eats, returning compounds the body needs (for instance, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) to the blood. The additional water joins with other waste to become urine, which flows through thin tubes called ureters into the bladder, where it remains until it exits through the urethra (the tube which carries urine from the entire body in the bladder) when somebody goes into the toilet.

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The kidneys also produce three major hormones:

  • Erythropoietin, which stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
    renin, which helps regulate blood pressure; and
  • The active form of vitamin D, which will help to control the calcium balance in the body and maintain healthy bones.

Kidney failure, which can be known as renal failure, is when the kidneys slow down or discontinue properly filtering wastes in the body, which may result in buildups of waste products and poisonous substances in the bloodstream vessels. Kidney failure may be acute (sudden) or chronic (occurring over time and generally long-lasting or permanent).

  • Intense kidney harm (sometimes called acute kidney failure) may be a result of bacterial infection, trauma, shock, heart failure, poisoning, or medication overdose. Treatment involves correcting the issue that resulted in kidney injury and, sometimes, dialysis.
  • Chronic kidney failure entails deterioration of kidney function over time. In children and adolescents, it could result from severe kidney failure which fails to enhance, birth defects, chronic kidney diseases, or chronic acute hypertension. If diagnosed early, chronic kidney failure may be treated. The objective of treatment generally will be to slow down the decrease of kidney function using drugs, blood pressure management, and diet. Sooner or later, a kidney transplant may be required.

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Childhood kidney diseases


The most frequent kidney disorders in children are found at birth. They comprise:

  • Posterior urethral valve obstruction: This obstruction or narrowing of the urethra affects only boys. It may be identified until the infant is born or only after and can be treated with surgery.
  • Fetal hydronephrosis: This enhancement of one or both of the kidneys is due to an obstruction at the growing urinary tract or a condition known as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) where pee abnormally flows backward (or refluxes) in the bladder to the ureters. Fetal hydronephrosis is usually diagnosed until the child is born and therapy varies widely. Sometimes the illness only requires continuing monitoring; others, surgery has to be done to clear the obstruction in the urinary tract.
  • Polycystic kidney disease (PKD): This is a condition where many fluid-filled cysts grow into both kidneys. The cysts may grow and grow so big that they contribute to kidney failure. Many kinds of PKD are inherited. Doctors may diagnose it before or after the kid is born. Sometimes, there are no symptoms; in others, PKD may result in UTIs, kidney stones, and higher blood pressure. Remedy for PKD changes — some instances may be managed with dietary modifications; others call for a kidney transplant or dialysis.
  • Multicyclic kidney disease (MKD): This is if big cysts grow in a kidney that has not developed correctly, finally causing it to quit functioning. (While PKD constantly affects the kidneys, MKD generally affects only 1 kidney.) Providentially, the unaffected kidney happens over and many individuals with MKD will have normal kidney function. MKD usually is characterized by prenatal ultrasound before arrival. Doctors handle it by tracking blood pressure and screening to get UTIs if required. Quite infrequently, surgical removal of the bladder may be critical.
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Wilms tumor
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Congenital problems with the urinary tract: As a baby grows in the uterus, a part of the urinary tract may grow to an abnormal size or at an abnormal form or position. These issues include:
  1. Duplication of the ureters, where a kidney has two ureters rather than a single. This may result in urinary tract infections with time and may be treated with drugs or, in some instances, with surgery.
  2. Horseshoe kidney, in which both kidneys are fused (attached ) into an arched kidney that usually works normally, but is much more likely to develop problems later in life. A straightforward horseshoe kidney doesn’t require surgical or medical therapy, but it will have to be checked frequently by physicians.

Other Difficulties With the Kidneys

Occasionally a kid can have other health conditions that influence how well the kidneys function.

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Kidney stones
  • Nephritis. This is really an inflammation of the kidney. It can be caused by a disease, an autoimmune disease (such as lupus), or an unknown reason. The first symptoms of nephritis are usually elevated levels of protein and blood in the urine.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).

This can be an inflammation of the kidney. It may be brought on by disease, an autoimmune disease (such as lupus), or even an unknown motive. The very first indicators of nephritis are usually elevated levels of blood and protein in the urine.

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Symptoms of kidney problems

The symptoms and signs of the urinary tract or kidney issues change and include:

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Diagnosis of Kidney Diseases

If kidney disease is suspected, the physician will have a medical history, do a physical examination, and arrange urine tests, blood tests, imaging studies, or even a biopsy to make a diagnosis. These studies are often suggested by a nephrologist, a physician that specializes in the identification and therapy.

Using urinalysis (a sort of urine test), the health care provider can quickly discover abnormalities (like a lot of red blood cells) that could indicate inflammation or irritation in the urinary tract. Urinalysis may also discover excess white blood cells, which are most frequently related to kidney and bladder ailments.

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Certain blood tests tell physicians how well the kidneys are filtering waste products and balancing the blood’s chemical makeup.

Two other significant diagnostic tools physicians use are blood pressure and development dimensions. Together with the heart, the kidneys are critical to determining blood pressure. High blood pressure in a young child is a significant indication that the kidneys will need to be assessed. Accurate growth dimensions can offer a hint to diagnosing some kidney ailments because children with chronic kidney disease frequently have development issues.

The physician can use a transplant to assess kidney function. A biopsy is a procedure where a little part of the bladder tissue is removed using a needle. Performed while a child is under anesthesia, it is a very simple process that may help make precise identification of this kidney issue in roughly 9 out of 10 instances. It is particularly beneficial in the identification of nephritis and nephrosis.

Along with regular X-rays, additional imaging research that a Physician can use to help diagnose kidney ailments include:

  • Computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Ultrasound
  •  A renal atomic scan entails having a particular radioactive substance injected into a vein. The radiation dose is much less than that of a very simple X-ray. The scan reveals how the kidneys compare with one another in size, form, and work. Additionally, it can detect scarring or other signs of recurrent or chronic kidney disease.